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The evidence is staggering; tobacco kills one person every six seconds – that is, one in 10 deaths among adults worldwide – and accounts for 500 million deaths a year. By 2030, unless urgent action is taken, tobacco’s annual death toll will rise to more than eight million. WHO in its Global Tobacco Epidemic Report 2008 warns us that if current trends continue unchecked, tobacco could kill up to one billion people in this century. 2. Every day, 50 teenagers in Malaysia begin smoking. Of the 4.7 million smokers here, most started before the age of 18, with 25% before the age of 10. A study on juvenile delinquency carried out by the Malaysian Crime Prevention Foundation showed that cigarette smoking offence (87%) is the top of the seven offences among delinquent children. Making cigarettes affordable for our youths and children will clearly result in far greater repercussions than we can imagine. 3.
Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 268-276 Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation Author links open overlay panel Kathleen A.Garrisona One of the first longitudinal fMRI studies of smoking cessation treatment in adolescents. Adolescents show increased non-drug reward-related brain activity pre- to post-treatment. Increases in reward-related brain activity were associated with smoking abstinence. Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n = 14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n = 28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales.