Higher cigarette pack-years related to smaller volumes in several subcortical regions. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of cigarette smoking-related effects on human brain structure have primarily employed voxel-based morphometry, and the most consistently reported finding was smaller volumes or lower density in anterior frontal regions and the insula. Much less is known about the effects of smoking on subcortical regions. We compared smokers and non-smokers on regional subcortical volumes, and predicted that smokers demonstrate greater age-related volume loss across subcortical regions than non-smokers. Non-smokers (n = 43) and smokers (n = 40), 22–70 years of age, completed a 4 T MRI study. Bilateral total subcortical lobar white matter (WM) and subcortical nuclei volumes were quantitated via FreeSurfer. In smokers, associations between smoking severity measures and subcortical volumes were examined. Smokers demonstrated greater age-related volume loss than non-smokers in the bilateral subcortical lobar WM, thalamus, and cerebellar cortex, as well as in the corpus callosum and subdivisions. In smokers, higher pack-years were associated with smaller volumes of the bilateral amygdala, nucleus accumbens, total corpus callosum and subcortical WM. Results provide novel evidence that chronic smoking in adults is associated with accelerated age-related volume loss in subcortical WM and GM nuclei.
Herscovici insisted that wasn’t the motivation. Still, he admitted, “In every pitch of this nature when you’re involving over 50 countries [with] spends in the hundreds of millions of dollars, and when there’s competition across agencies, obviously savings are achieved.” Winning shops should feel good about adding business at a time when most holding companies are reporting subpar growth. They shouldn’t bank on major profits from programmatic fees. The company already handles programmatic buying in-house and plans to expand the model globally, Mr. Herscovici said. WPP reportedly isn’t ready to give up its 24.7% stake in Japanese ad agency Asatsu-DK for the ¥152 billion ($1.35 billion) price private-equity firm Bain Capital has offered for the company. People close to WPP said the tender “severely undervalues” the Japanese firm. [ Financial Times ] EMarketer has lowered its 2017 ad revenue forecast for Snapchat. The research firm now thinks Snapchat will generate $774.1 million in ad revenue world-wide this year, down from its March prediction of $900 million.
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