Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 187-193 Trends in utilization of smoking cessation agents before and after the passage of FDA boxed warning in the United States Author links open overlay panel DrishtiShaha The FDA issued a black box warning (BBW) on bupropion and varenicline in 2009. We examined the trends in use of bupropion and varenicline before and after the BBW. We observed a significant decline in the use of varenicline after the passage of BBW. The BBW was not associated with decline in the use of bupropion. Passage of BBW may have a substantial impact on the utilization of certain medications. In 2009, the FDA required a black box warning (BBW) on bupropion and varenicline, the two commonly prescribed smoking cessation agents due to reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events. We investigated if there was a decline in use of bupropion and varenicline after the BBW by comparing the percent using these medications before and after BBW. We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2007 to 2014. The study sample consisted of adult smokers, who were advised by their physicians to quit smoking. We divided the time period into “pre-warning”, “post-warning: immediate”, and “post-warning: late.” Unadjusted analysis using chi-square tests and adjusted analyses using logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the change in bupropion and varenicline use before and after the BBW. Secondary analyses using piecewise regression were also conducted.
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Lucas Herscovici, a global marketing executive at the beer giant, said the consolidation was designed to “reduce complexity.” Usually, that’s code for cost savings, but Mr. Herscovici insisted that wasn’t the motivation. Still, he admitted, “In every pitch of this nature when you’re involving over 50 countries [with] spends in the hundreds of millions of dollars, and when there’s competition across agencies, obviously savings are achieved.” Winning shops should feel good about adding business at a time when most holding companies are reporting subpar growth. They shouldn’t bank on major profits from programmatic fees. The company already handles programmatic buying in-house and plans to expand the model globally, Mr. Herscovici said. WPP reportedly isn’t ready to give up its 24.7% stake in Japanese ad agency Asatsu-DK for the ¥152 billion ($1.35 billion) price private-equity firm Bain Capital has offered for the company. People close to WPP said the tender “severely undervalues” the Japanese firm. [ Financial Times ] EMarketer has lowered its 2017 ad revenue forecast for Snapchat. The research firm now thinks Snapchat will generate $774.1 million in ad revenue world-wide this year, down from its March prediction of $900 million. [ eMarketer ] Those aforementioned Russian entities reportedly used Facebook’s Custom Audiences retargeting tool to identify voters susceptible to being influenced and repeatedly send them ads.
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