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Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 268-276 Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation Author links open overlay panel Kathleen A.Garrisona One of the first longitudinal fMRI studies of smoking cessation treatment in adolescents. Adolescents show increased non-drug reward-related brain activity pre- to post-treatment. Increases in reward-related brain activity were associated with smoking abstinence. Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n = 14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n = 28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment. These findings suggest that reduced smoking during smoking cessation treatment is associated with a “recovery of function” in frontostriatal responses to nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers, although comparison with a developmental control group of adolescent nonsmokers is warranted.
The manufacturers are required to notify the federal court a week in advance which statement will run and on which network and in which time slot. The parties are negotiating how the corrective statements will appear on the manufacturers’ websites for the first five years of the court order. The goal is to reach a mock-up resolution by Oct. 23. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement with 46 state attorneys general led to significant industry changes that included banning cigarette billboards, stadium advertisements and brand-name merchandise. Restrictions became more extensive in 2009 when Congress gave the Food and Drug Administration broad regulatory authority over nearly every aspect of tobacco product manufacturing and marketing. “We remain committed to aligning our business practices with society’s expectations of a responsible company,” Garnick said. “This includes communicating openly about the health effects of our products, continuing to support cessation efforts, helping reduce underage tobacco use and developing potentially reduced-risk products.” Matthew Myers, the president of Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, said in April that he had mixed feelings about the appellate court’s ruling. “While the ruling should clear the way for publication of these long-overdue corrective statements, it is disappointing that the court rejected the ‘here is the truth’ requirement,” Myers said. “The fact that tobacco companies have repeatedly fought this simple phrase shows they haven’t changed and remain as allergic to the truth as ever,” he said.